Source: Peninsula Essence
The Gallipoli campaign was a military campaign in the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula, from 17 February 1915 to 9 January 1916. The Entente powers, Britain, France and Russia, sought to weaken the Ottoman Empire, one of the Central Powers, by taking control of the Turkish straits. Though it was a failure for the Allies, Gallipoli has become a defining moment in the history of both Australia and New Zealand, revealing characteristics that both countries have used to define their soldiers: endurance, determination, initiative and 'mateship'. Read through the resources below to learn more.
At dawn on 25 April 1915, Allied troops landed on the Gallipoli peninsula in Ottoman Turkey. The Gallipoli campaign was the land-based element of a strategy intended to allow Allied ships to pass through the Dardanelles, capture Constantinople (now Istanbul) and ultimately knock Ottoman Turkey out of the war. Read through this website to learn more.
Australia's involvement with the Gallipoli Campaign began in late 1914 when the first contingent of Australian troops disembarked in Egypt. In March 1915, an Anglo-French fleet failed to sail through the Dardanelles on the Gallipoli peninsula's southern shore. The fleet had hoped to bring Constantinople under fire in an attempt to cripple Germany's ally, the Ottoman Empire. To help the navy, the Allies landed infantry on Gallipoli on 25 April 1915. Their soldiers made little headway. An attempted break out in August failed. By winter 1915, high command decided to evacuate Gallipoli. The campaign cost the Allies more than 141,00 casualties, including over 8000 Australians. Some quarter of a million men of the Ottoman Empire were killed or wounded. Read through this website for a timeline of events.
Early on the morning of 25 April 1915, Allied forces landed on the Gallipoli peninsula in Ottoman Turkey. This marked the start of the Gallipoli Campaign, a land-based element of a broad strategy to defeat the Ottoman Empire. Over 8 months, the Anzacs advanced little further than the positions they had taken on that first day of the landings. Read through this website to learn more.
On 25 April 1915 Australian soldiers landed at what is now called Anzac Cove on the Gallipoli Peninsula. For the vast majority of the 16,000 Australians and New Zealanders who landed on that first day, this was their first experience of combat. By that evening, 2000 of them had been killed or wounded. The Gallipoli campaign was a military failure. However, the traits that were shown there – bravery, ingenuity, endurance and mateship – have become enshrined as defining aspects of the Australian character. Read through this article to learn more.
The Australians landed at what became known as Anzac Cove on 25 April 1915, and they established a tenuous foothold on the steep slopes above the beach. During the early days of the campaign, the allies tried to break through the Turkish lines and the Turks tried to drive the allied troops off the peninsula. Concerted but unsuccessful allied attempts to break through in August included the Australian attacks at Lone Pine and the Nek. All attempts ended in failure for both sides, and the ensuing stalemate continued for the remainder of 1915. Read through this website to learn more.
On Saturday 5 August 2000, a special symposium Gallipoli: the August Offensive was held at the Australian War Memorial to mark the 85th anniversary of the Gallipoli campaign. A selection of the papers presented at this symposium have been reproduced on this website.
This website lists Australian fatalities by month for the Dardanelles (Gallipoli) campaign approximate (April 25, 1915 to January 8, 1916).
This website lists the awards given to Australians for services during the Gallipoli campaign.
The stories behind the nine Victoria Crosses won by Australian soldiers on the little known peninsula almost a century ago, all of which are held and displayed in the Memorial's Hall of Valour, helped in the creation of the ANZAC legend. Read through this website to learn more about their stories.
John Simpson Kirkpatrick was born in Britain but later moved to Australia. In August 1914 he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force, serving at Gallipoli the following year as Private John Simpson in the 3rd Field Ambulance, Australian Army Medical Corps. He served from the time of the landing at Gallipoli on 25 April until he was killed in action on 19 May. Simpson became famous for his work as a stretcher-bearer. Using one of the donkeys brought in for carrying water, he transported wounded men day and night from the fighting in Monash Valley to the beach on Anzac Cove. Read through this article to learn more.
Listen to senior historian and curator Brad Manera gave a keynote address re-examining some key battles at Gallipoli, and how information about the fate of casualties was conveyed to family members back in Australia.
The Gallipoli Campaign began as an ambitious naval strategy devised by Winston Churchill, First Lord of the Admiralty, to force the Ottoman Empire out of the Great War. Following the failure of the initial attack plan, an eight month ground war ensued across the Gallipoli peninsula, characterised by a disastrous underestimation by the British, of Ottoman resistance to the invasion of their homeland. The events of April 25th 1915 formed a bitter beginning to a broader campaign which eventuated in retreat and failure for the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force. Read through this website to learn more.
Fought during the First World War (1914-18) from 25 April 1915 to 9 January 1916, Gallipoli was the first major amphibious operation in modern warfare. British Empire and French troops landed on the Ottoman-held peninsula in the Dardanelles Straits with disastrous consequences for the Allies. Read through this website to learn more.
This collection includes images of Anzac troops in Egypt and Gallipoli, some beautiful hand-tinted glass slides and a couple of popular songs from the First World War era. Australia’s baptism of fire in the First World War took place with the landings on the Gallipoli Peninsula of Turkey on 25 April 1915. The Australian Imperial Force sailed in convoy from Albany, Western Australia, landing in Egypt where they formed the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir William Birdwood.
This website is a great starting place to learn some of the basics about the Gallipoli Campaign.
This website gives a brief overview of the Gallipoli Campaign and provides links to a huge collection of primary sources related to the Gallipoli Campaign.
The assault on the Gallipoli Peninsula was designed to engage Turkish forces by land and eventually push through to the Turkish capital Istanbul. Read through this website to learn more about this doomed campaign.
The only known moving images of the 1915 campaign at Gallipoli, shot mostly by English war correspondent Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett.
The Australian War Memorial holds over 300 maps from the Gallipoli campaign. The collection includes maps used at the landing of Australian and New Zealand forces at Anzac Cove on 25 April 1915, Turkish maps made during and immediately after the campaign, trench maps, operational maps, artillery maps, and Anzac cemetery plans.